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  1. Everyone knows that in recent years, PERC (passive emitter back contact) technology has been very popular in the manufacturing of solar panels and is currently the mainstream technology. You should know that a new technology appears in the photovoltaic industry every 2 to 3 years. TOPCon is a new technology that was developed in 2022 and the market demand is constantly increasing. This technology, known as tunnel oxide passivation contacts, was introduced into the photovoltaic industry by the Fraunhofer Solar Systems Research Institute in Germany in 2013. It pairs the tunnel oxide layer with PERC solar cells to reduce recombination losses and improve battery efficiency. [caption id="attachment_1175" align="alignnone" width="501"]topcon technology topcon technology[/caption] We have found that TOPCon makes PERC batteries more powerful and efficient. The theoretical efficiency limit of Plain PERC technology is approximately 24%, which represents the solar energy consumption of the panel. The efficiency of TOPCon will continue to improve in 2022: Trina Solar will reach 25.5% in March with the largest 210mm battery size. Due to TOPCon's easy improvement in battery efficiency and reliability, this innovation may soon enter the Western market. Higher efficiency allows the panel to obtain more energy per unit area, "he said. Compared to 70% of PERC, TOPcon has a "double-sided" rate of 80%, which allows TOPcon modules to obtain more energy from the back compared to PERC double-sided modules, which is beneficial for ground mounted utility projects. Compared to the new manufacturing process, these battery advancements are quite easy to achieve on PERC batteries. PERC adds a passivation film on the back of a regular solar cell to absorb more light that may have already passed through the initial surface of the cell. TOPCon uses the same PERC membrane. We Lingtech expect TOPcon to be the mainstream of the future. Because it can produce more power.    
  2. Shingled solar panel components are made by slicing traditional battery cells (single crystal, polycrystalline, Sunpower, etc.) and connecting each small piece in a forward and backward stacking manner. The layout method is usually horizontal or vertical (but Sunpower components are also patented in vertical arrangement, and companies generally use horizontal arrangement). Finally, special conductive adhesive is used to connect them in series/parallel, and then laminated packaging is carried out. [caption id="attachment_1177" align="alignnone" width="496"]lingtech shingled solar module 420W lingtech shingled solar module 420W[/caption] Different from the traditional solar panel, the traditional solar panel welding is to weld the positive and negative poles of the solar panel through copper strips, and the gap between the panels should be 2-4mm (depending on the size of the panel). And the shingled solar panel components do not have these, so under the same area, the power of shingled  solar panels will be greater than traditional solar panels, and natural power generation will be more. Alternatively, under the same power, the area of shingled solar panels will be smaller than that of traditional solar panels, but the area receiving direct sunlight will not be smaller. What is shingled solar technology? Shingled solar refers to the use of laser slicing technology to cut the entire battery into several small battery strips, and use conductive adhesive to flexibly connect the layers of the battery strips. This operation can optimize the component structure, achieve zero spacing between battery cells, and place 5% more battery cells in the same version compared to other types of components, effectively improving the module's light receiving area. The latest generation of efficient tile stacking technology adopts battery surface optimization technology, improving the ability to collect current and further increasing the energy density limit of component packaging High density photovoltaic modules packaged using shingled solar  technology have five unique product advantages, allowing shingled solar modules to have stronger "vitality" than traditional modules. 1、 Higher conversion efficiency Due to limitations in the welding process of traditional components, there is usually a 2mm gap between battery cells, resulting in a large amount of blank area in the components. In the shingled solar module, the distance between the battery cells and the stack of the battery cells is 0, which can encapsulate more battery cells in the same area, thereby improving the conversion efficiency of the photovoltaic module. Traditional battery cell welding vs. shingled  solar  cell welding 2、 Stronger resistance to hot spots The "hot spot effect" of photovoltaic modules is one of the most important factors affecting the power generation of the module. When the "hot spot effect" reaches a certain level, continuous local heating and high temperature can burn the module, causing glass fragmentation, battery cell charring, and back plate burning through. Even if the components are not burned out, hot spots can directly shorten the service life of photovoltaic modules by 30%, which in the long run will cause photovoltaic module failure. 3、 Lower risk of cracking The components using shingled technology are flexibly connected to the battery cells through conductive adhesive, with uniform stress distribution. This not only adapts to thinner silicon wafers, but also reduces the risk of cracking. Traditional components may experience hidden cracks during use, with the maximum possible length of the hidden cracks extending to the entire length of the battery cell (half of the length), while stacked components may extend up to 1/6 of the entire length of the battery cell (determined by the number of slices). The laminated tile component can effectively limit the impact of hidden cracks to a smaller area, and even if hidden cracks occur, the power loss of the component will be less 4、 Less occlusion impact The shielding of the photovoltaic power station will not only reduce the power generation efficiency of the module, but also may lead to the generation of hot spots, bringing hidden dangers to the safety of the power station. Compared to ordinary photovoltaic modules, the impact of occlusion on shingled solar modules is much smaller. When the component is installed vertically, the bottom string is blocked, and the power attenuation of the conventional half piece component is 50%, while the power attenuation of the conventional whole piece component is 100%. And the power attenuation of the stacked tile component is only 33% when a single row of batteries fails; When the component is horizontally installed, it blocks the bottom string, and the power of conventional whole and half piece components decreases by 33%, while the power of shingled solar components only decreases by 17% due to single row battery failure.
  3. For example: Photovoltaic power generation project of a farm 80KWP The project scale is 80.2kwp The annual average power generation capacity is 104,200 KWH, The average annual earnings are 148,000 yuan Total revenue in 25 years: 3.7 million yuan Return on investment time: 3.5 years Save 34.4 tons of standard coal annually The annual carbon dioxide reduction is 89.5 tons
  4. Six benefits of installing solar PHOTOVOLTAIC power generation: Solar energy is inexhaustible. The solar radiation received on the earth's surface can meet the global energy demand by 10,000 times. Installing solar photovoltaic systems on just 4% of the world's deserts could generate enough electricity to meet global demand! Solar power is safe and secure from energy crises or instability in fuel markets; Solar energy can be everywhere, power supply can be nearby, no long distance transmission, avoid the loss of long distance transmission lines; Solar energy without fuel, low operating cost; Solar power generation without moving parts, not easy to damage, simple maintenance, especially suitable for unattended use; Solar power generation will not produce any pollution, noise and other public hazards, no adverse impact on the environment, is the ideal clean energy; ◆ Solar power generation system construction cycle is short, convenient and flexible, and according to the increase and decrease of load, arbitrarily add or reduce the solar array capacity, avoid waste. Eight advantages of Industrial rooftop PV power generation: Make use of idle roofs and floors to revitalize fixed assets and increase enterprise income. industrial commercial rooftop solar pv grid system[/caption] ◆ For enterprises to save peak electricity charges (peak power generation in the daytime), surplus electricity can be sold online. Reduce the internal temperature of the factory, increase the cost of working comfort and cooling in summer. ◆ Can better fulfill the energy conservation and emission reduction targets stipulated by the government. ◆ Not limited by the distribution of resources, using the advantages of building roof safe and reliable, no noise, no pollution. ◆ Use the nearest user side access, without long-distance transportation, to avoid the loss of long-distance transmission lines. ◆ Solar power generation system construction cycle is short, energy acquisition time is short, convenient and flexible, according to the increase and decrease of load, arbitrarily add or reduce solar array, avoid waste. ◆ Good investment returns, can run for at least 25  years. No fuel, low operating cost, power generation process is not easy to produce pollution waste, is the ideal clean energy.  
  5. A solar panel has two warranties: a performance and equipment guarantee. A solar panel’s performance warranty will typically guarantee 90% production at 10 years and 80% at 25-30 years. An equipment warranty will typically guarantee 10-12 years without failing. A solar panel’s product warranty insurance covers the integrity of the panel itself and protects you against problems such as manufacturing defects, environmental issues, premature wear and tear etc. As with most warranties, a longer period is generally more advantageous to you, if you own your solar system When evaluating a solar panel warranty and its manufacturer, the two most important factors on which you should focus on are: 1. Product (or materials) warranty 2. The performance warranty As to Lingtechsolar, the warranty policy is strict and completely. Buyers can ask warranty policy paper from the sales person. And the warranty clause are along with order contract.
  6. Eliminate cell gap to increase module efficiency significantly. Comparing with 5BB, Lingtechsolar  series module uses circular ribbon, which is developed by Lingtechsoalr R&D independently to achieve the reutilization of light absorption and increase energy generation. Lets see explanation as below:
  7. Bifacial Module with Transparent Backsheet technology Up to 20% power gain depending on albedo and PV system design.
  8. The PERC cell has a passivated rear side and a laser grooving process, which significantly improves the cell efficiency. PERC: passivated Emitter and Rell Cell.
  9. Amount of electrical current,By using half-cells, the electrical current ( i ) flowing in each busbar is halved. Therefore, the amount of internal losses in a half-cut module is 1/4 of a full sized cell module. Lets see the instruction by chart as below:    
  10. The power per unit area is decided by the power of solar panel itself. For example, if a 1.6x1m solar panel is made of 240W, the average power per square meter is 150W. A 220W solar panel of the same size would average only 137.5W. As for the generating capacity per unit area, it is not only related to its own power, but also related to geographical location (illumination), installation Angle and other conditions Introduction Household solar panel is the core part of solar power generation system, the role of solar panel is to convert the sun's light energy into electric energy, output direct current into storage battery. Solar panel is one of the most important components in household solar power generation. Its conversion rate and service life are important factors to determine whether solar cell is useful or not. Module design: designed according to IEC:1215:1993 standard, 36 or 72 polycrystalline silicon solar cells are connected in series to form 12V and 24V modules. The module can be used in various household PHOTOVOLTAIC systems, independent photovoltaic power stations and grid-connected photovoltaic power stations, etc. Design principles The design of solar power supply system requires cooperation between users and professional solar technology companies. First of all, users need to provide exact usage requirements, including: (1) Electricity voltage and power to be solved; (2) Daily working hours, continuous rainy days guarantee time; (3) Whether there is backup mains power supply; (4) Regional and climatic data used in the system; (5) If it is to supply power to the equipment, it is best to provide the name, specification or technical parameters of the equipment. Due to the high one-time investment cost of solar power supply, the design should be based on the principle of economic and practical, as far as possible to reduce the investment, while some key components as far as possible to choose high-quality products, in order to prolong the working life of the whole system and improve the reliability of the system, reduce the failure rate. Principle Factors to consider in the design of domestic solar power generation: (1) Where is domestic solar power used? Solar radiation in the area; (2) the load power of the system; (3) What is the output voltage of the system, DC or AC? (4) The system needs working hours every day; (5) How much continuous power supply the system needs in rainy weather without sunlight; (6) load, pure resistance, capacitive or inductive, starting current size; (7) The number of system requirements.